The total population of Russia, by different estimates, is about 134.000.000 people.
73,1% (97.954.000) of them live in cities, towns and urban villages, furthermore:
9.269.000 people live in Moscow and 6.900.000 people - in Moscovskaya oblast (Moscow region),
5.897.000 live in Saint-Petersburg and 2.350.000 - in Leningradskaya oblast (a region with Saint-Petersburg as its centre.
The peculiarity of the population distribution in Russia is a presence of two types of a territory settlements.
In Far North of Russia, which occupies 2/3 of the whole its territory, live only 1/15 of population or about 10 million people. It is a zone of the focal settlements: separate inhabited localities and groups of them are scattered in vast expances of tundra and taiga. For example, in Evenk autonomus okrug the average distance between the settlements is 180 km. As for the European part of Russia, the South of Siberia and the Far East, the zone of dense settlement occupies the most part of these territories. This zone is named the main belt of settlement. Occupying one third of the territory it accumulates more than 93 % of Russian population. Here the biggest cities of Russia, almost all manufacturing industry and agricultural enterprises are situated.
Ethnic Composition of Population
A majority of Russian population (88%) belongs to the nations of the Indo-European language family, mostly to its Slavonic group. Russians are 81% of the whole Russian population, 4 % accounts for Ukranians and Belorusians.
From the representetives of other groups of the Indo-European family the most numerous are Osetins and Germans, however their quantity greatly decreased in comparison with 1985 because of emigration to Germany.
The next in its number is the Altai language family (about 12 million people), mainly that are the peoples of Turk group (11,2 million people). The most numerous nation after Russians of the Russian Federation is Tatars (5,5 million people); 1,8 million people of them live in Tatarstan; 1,1 million - in neighbouring Bashkortostan, as for the rest - they are scattered along the territory of Ural, Volga region and Siberia.
The next in their number Turk nations are Chuvash people (1,8million people) and Bashkirs (1,3 million people), mainly living within their republics (908 thousand of Chuvash people and 864 thousand of Bashkirs). Hence the largest Turk peoples are concentrated in the south of Siberia (Altais, Shors, and Khakas people, Tuvinians) up to the Far East (Yakuts). Further there are the ethnic groups of Nothern Caucasus: Kumyks, Nogais, Karachais, Balkars.
Along the borders with Kazakhstan in the regions of the Southern Siberia, Ural and Volga region Kazakhs are settled.
The nations of the Ural-Yukagir family, mainly Finno-Ugric group, live mostly in Ural and Volga regions and in the north of the European part of Russia. The largest of these ethnic groups is Mordva, about 1 million people, one third of which lives within their republic, and the rest - on the territory of other Ural and Volga regions.
The nations of the North-Caucasus family are settled in the most compact area, on the territorry of the North Caucasus republics mainly.
The State language of the Russian Federation on its whole territory is Russian. At the same time Russia being a multinational state, garantees to all nations, populating the territory of Russia, the right to maintain their native language and arrangement of conditions for its study and development. However, it is necessary to point, that according to the latest statistic data 86,6 % of the multinational population of Russia consider the Russian language to be their mother tongue and 97,7 % - speak fluent Russian.